The important point is that the prediction depends critically on the density of baryons ie neutrons and protons at the time of nucleosynthesis.
History of nucleosynthesis theory[ edit ] The first ideas on nucleosynthesis were simply that the chemical elements were created at the beginning of the universe, but no rational physical scenario for this could be identified.
Well, not just Black Holes but also White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars — anywhere you have an Accretion Disk you can end up building up again another situation with the densities and the temperatures are sufficiently high that you can end up with Nuclear Reactions.
You start with the Proton-Proton chain. Hence, the BBFH hypothesis could not by itself adequately explain the observed abundances of helium and deuterium in the Universe.
The whole Universe, the Big Bang was like a great big Particle Accelerator that turned to borrow one of your words Pamela ginormous amount of Energy into Matter.
The problem that we run into is that with Atoms that are lighter weight than Iron. More massive stars ignite helium in their cores without a flash and execute a blue loop before reaching the asymptotic giant branch.
Although 4He continues to be produced by stellar fusion and alpha decays and trace amounts of 1H continue to be produced by spallation and certain types of radioactive decay, most of the mass of the isotopes in the universe are thought to have been produced in the Big Bang.
For instance during the Hydrogen-Hydrogen, you end up giving off 1. Claytonfollowed by many others. Yeah, you guys ask way harder questions than Fraser does.
Then you go through flashes and you end up with burning the Helium. That fusion process essentially shut down at about 20 minutes, due to drops in temperature and density as the universe continued to expand.
A very influential stimulus to nucleosynthesis research was an abundance table created by Hans Suess and Harold Urey that was based on the unfractionated abundances of the non-volatile elements found within unevolved meteorites.
This is where the Weak Force gets involved and switches the identity of a Neutron into a Proton while emitting bits of other stuff like an Electron and the anti-Electron Neutrino.
Further details can be found here. In these Stars they had what we call Proton-Proton reactions. We have Gamma Rays flying out radically. This would bring all the mass of the Universe to a single point, a "primeval atom", to a state before which time and space did not exist.
To begin with, it was estimated that only a small amount of matter found in the Universe should consist of helium if stellar nuclear reactions were its only source of production.
Processes[ edit ] There are a number of astrophysical processes which are believed to be responsible for nucleosynthesis. The majority of these occur in within stars, and the chain of those nuclear fusion processes are known as hydrogen burning via the proton-proton chain or the CNO cyclehelium burningcarbon burningneon burningoxygen burning and silicon burning.
So, then the most common Element in the entire Universe is Hydrogen. This is exactly the same process that happens inside Stars. In terms of the present day critical density of matter, the required density of baryons is a few percent the exact value depends on the assumed value of the Hubble constant.
They were just like balls of Hydrogen, right. Despite the name, stars on a blue loop from the red giant branch are typically not blue in color, but are rather yellow giants, possibly Cepheid variables.
So it is Protons without Electrons. Thanks to the pioneering efforts of George Gamow and his collaborators, there now exists a satisfactory theory as to the production of light elements in the early Universe.
Synthesis of these elements occurred either by nuclear fusion including both rapid and slow multiple neutron capture or to a lesser degree by nuclear fission followed by beta decay.
Arthur Stanley Eddington first suggested inthat stars obtain their energy by fusing hydrogen into helium and raised the possibility that the heavier elements may also form in stars. BurbidgeFowler and Hoyle  is a well-known summary of the state of the field in In higher-mass stars, the dominant energy production process is the CNO cyclewhich is a catalytic cycle that uses nuclei of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as intermediaries and in the end produces a helium nucleus as with the proton-proton chain.
Heavier elements can be assembled within stars by a neutron capture process known as the s-process or in explosive environments, such as supernovae and neutron star mergersby a number of other processes.
Gradually it became clear that hydrogen and helium are much more abundant than any of the other elements.
Some boron may have been formed at this time, but the process stopped before significant carbon could be formed, as this element requires a far higher product of helium density and time than were present in the short nucleosynthesis period of the Big Bang.
In this way, the alpha process preferentially produces elements with even numbers of protons by the capture of helium nuclei. That’s BBN. The atoms in your body – apart from the hydrogen – were all made in stars by stellar nucleosynthesis.
Stars on the main sequence get the energy they shine by from nuclear. Stellar nucleosynthesis is the collective term for the nuclear reactions taking place in stars to build the nuclei of the heavier elements. The processes involved began to be understood early in.
Nov 11, · Explanation of element formation through Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Stellar Nucleosynthesis, and Supernovae Nucleosynthesis. The elements that are formed in each type of Nucleosynthesis and the. Big Bang nucleosynthesis produced no elements heavier than lithium.
To do that you need stars, which means waiting around for at least billion years. we are all made of stars.
More than ninety per cent of the universe is composed of hydrogen and helium. Both elements have been around since shortly after the beginning of the universe. The subsequent nucleosynthesis of the elements (including all carbon, all oxygen, etc.) occurs primarily in stars either by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission.
Your source for the latest research. Nucleosynthesis: Nucleosynthesis, production on a cosmic scale of all the species of chemical elements from perhaps one or two simple types of atomic nuclei, a process that entails large-scale nuclear reactions including those in progress in the Sun and other .What is nucleosynthesis in stars